PAS Level 7 reflects failure of supraglottic, glottal and tracheal airway protection mechanisms in the presence of some residual recurrent laryngeal nerve sensory integrity. For illustration purposes, we will use a hypothetical data set. Three examples of this type of constraint are described below:. Multinomial Logistic Regression Although binary models are common and familiar to most readers, many clinicians and scientists may feel that reduction of the PAS to a two-category variable sacrifices important levels of detail. Neurological conditions affect swallowing because of decreases in motor movement function, sensory sensation function or both.
In the following section, we will discuss descriptive and modeling options for categorical data that test all necessary hypotheses without making untenable assumptions.
Distinguishing the Normal Aging Swallow from Dysphagia
Material enters the airway, contacts the vocal folds, and is not ejected from the airway. Despite the ineffective ejection attempt, spontaneous attempts to cough or throat clear by the patient are considered to reflect sensory integrity below the vocal folds. Chin-down posture effect on aspiration in dysphagic patients. First, for the current data set, we stated an expectation that all participants were included in the trial on the basis of demonstrating a worst baseline PAS score of 3 or higher. Options for Analysis The remainder of this article is a tutorial for researchers on statistical approaches to analyzing penetration-aspiration data.